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«The unjust opinion of John Philimon about the rovulotionist Rhigas Velestinlis» 
John Philimon in his book «Historic essay of Filikis Association», which was published in 1834, a few years after the Greek Revolution, unjustly criticizes the personality and the revolutionary actions of Rhigas Velestinlis, for whom he characteristically writes that he was not so sceptic nor secretive, although possessor of great knowledge and vivid in spirit, but a frivolous examiner of matters and even more of his Nation's condition. Consequent to that expression was writers to adopt, as a rule without examining, that unjust opinion of Philimon about Rhigas.


Previous negative characterizations


Before going ahead on refuting the above ideas of John Philimon, some other negative opinions are presented, which had been expressed previously for Rhigas' personality and revolutionary plans. Specifically, six months after the martyrdom of Rhigas, Patriarch Gregorios the 5th , in his letter (1 December 1798) to the Archbishop of Smyrne, gave an order to collect all the disseminated printed copies or manuscripts by the title «New Political Administration», explaining that «it is full of confused meanings, which are against the doctrines of our orthodox faith».An accusation, which must have been based perhaps not on the examination of the texts, but on the strength that these texts would have for a revolutionary movement created by the excitement of the mind by Thourios and the Revolutionary Proclamation, which accompany the Human Rights and the Constitution of Rhigas.

Interesting also is the case of Dr. Michael Perdikaris (1766-1828), who was against Rhigas' the revolutionary movement, for whom he clearly expresses his negative characterizations in his libelous manuscript with the title "Rhigas or Against False Greeks", which was published by L. Vranousi to that edition we refer. Rhigas is mentioned as "prodigal, licentious, greedy, sordid, ambitious" and "his movement, his aim and manner, wouldn't get in any way a good and useful result". Moreover, he supported that the Greeks with education and religion "can achieve more than what Rhigas thinks to achieve with his unrighteous Law", that is to say with the political, social liberty and the adaptation of his democratic regime. He especially emphasized that the nation can "live almost happely under the most clement monarchy of Ottoman, since the Nation lives with political harmony with appropriate legislation, as time allows". Nevertheless, Perdikaris in his libelous text, which he wrote in 1811, gives us significant information that Rhigas "is glorified

by many as a great hero, illuminator and pride of nation, as it is thought he died for the liberty of the Greeks".

One more writer, Jakob Rizos Neroulos, speaks against Rhigas' personality and his revolutionary plan. In his book, which was published in France in 1827 and translated into Greek in 1870, notes primarily that "famous Rhigas, who was born in Velestino of Thessaly, conceived the gigantic purpose of raising and the deliverance of Greece". Nevertheless, he adds regarding Rhigas revolution that " when someone thinks in which abyss Rhigas would throw Greece, if he hadn't been arrested at Triest, at the time in which he was embarking on a ship to go to Peloponneso, it is impossible someone not to have been horrified and not have blamed the aim itself, but its premature and entirely inconsiderate performance". Further, he doesn't omit to emphasize the positive results of Rhigas' revolutionary movements, noting emphatically that "Rhigas' operation inspired in Greeks the idea that they may at sometime be capable to free themselves, increased the love of science and the attempts to spread the zeal of learning and the proceeding benefits from education".

Also, the merchant and betrayer of Rhigas, Demetrios Oekonomou, a few days after the treachery in a letter (10 January 1798) to the Austrian governor of Triest characterized Rhigas' revolutionary movement as an "unwise attempt". Characteristically, he writes that "the citizen's duty and the faith to the holy throne of the Majesty and then the love to the neighbor exhorted me inwardly to denounce to Yours the unwise attempt of Rhigas Velestinlis, which would be able to grieve the lives of thousands of innocents".


Refutation of the opinions


The negative elements, which J. Philimon expresses regarding Rhigas' personality, are, as a revolutionist and organizer of the conspiring plan, he wasn't "so thoughtful and secretive", but contrarily was "superficial examiner of the facts". It wasn't possible for him to explain how one leader of a revolution is so easily arrested, as soon as he arrives at the hotel of Triest, without having taken the necessary precautions. Perhaps, he came to these negative conclusions only from the fact of his capture and probably hadn't studied the Rhigas' complete action in Wienn from August 1796 until December 1797, when he left for Triest. However, the accusations of J. Philimon are disproved by studying all of Rhigas' actions: the spreading of revolutionary ideas, the misleading of the Austrian police, the revolution plan, the secretive and unlawful printing of his revolutionary works, the assuring of a passport from the Austrian Authorities and the betrayal.


The spreading of his revolutionary ideas


Rhigas, from the day which he went to Wienn in August in 1796, had continual contacts with his compatriots with whom at their meeting sang Thourios, the revolutionary song. Characteristically, it is written on the examining documents that "in September of that year (1797) Rhigas Velestinlis in the home of Argenti, who was also present and the Greek, Theocharis, sang the hymn of liberty, which is said to be in the revolutionary proclamation, while dancing around the table". Also, the compatriot of Rhigas from Siatista, Theocharis Rourountzias, in his testimony "confesses that he received for transcription from G. Sakellarios, the rebellious song "For how long lands", sang this song with him and the two attended students of Medicine Karakassis and Panagiotou, and many times without them….and sent a copy of this to his mentioned brother (George Tourountzias at Semlino)".

Moreover, he came into contact with other worthy people, who would help his revolutionary plans, as for example, he came into contact with the doctor of the emperor's wife, professor Peter Frank, with whom he had become acquainted and later become his friend. Characteristic is the description that, Christoforos Peraivos writes, who at that time was suffering of a disease of the eyes and Rhigas had introduced him to Frank to examine him. Specifically, Peraivos writes, 'Rhigas didn't omit from the beginning of his arrival to Wien to become friends with the famous doctor and philosopher Peter Frank, whose sincere philhellenism he had conceived, earned his respect, as he respected Kantartzis of Bukuresti. Frank didn't accept payment from the Greeks he cured, but he advised them to give it to Rhigas, which was necessary for the publishing books of enlightening of the Greeks. Indeed, Rhigas wasn't disappointed by giving reliance to Frank, because after his condemnation and death, the foreign and Philhellene in spirit Frank saved in Wienn many prisoners than his Greeks partners, who were unaware of their future. At that period Frank was in good terms with the emperor and was held in high esteem by the important courtiers".

Let it de noted that Frank while in the hospital of Wienn, where he was director, protected and saved from capture and certain death, the doctor and collaborator of Rhigas, Georgios Sakelarios.


Misleading of the Austrian police


Rhigas prints his great Map in a period of six months and simultaneously the volume of "Young Anacharsis", "Morale Tripous" as well as the maps of Vlachias and Moldavias. And all these he accomplished by getting permission to print and distribute, as it was the law for all printed material, from the censor and the Austrian Police, who hadn't at all suspected Rhigas' revolutionary activities-something that must be taken into consideration when expressing opinions about Rhigas. To strengthen the historical consciousness of the Greeks, he put on his map a lot of historical facts, topographical diagrams and coins, noting in the title that his Map was printed for Anacharsis' travel. But an attentive study of the Map shows that this edition didn't have any relation with Young Anacharsis' travel. His real purpose was to print a political map of the State, which he wanted to create after his revolution. And as this wasn't possible to be done freely, he concealed his real purposes with archaeological and historical facts, which he added, succeeding in this way to mislead the Austrian Police, the censorship and get permission for its printing. He was able to continuously print for six months his map, which was titled "Map of Greece" and in which, except the area of ancient Greece, were included the areas which were under the Ottoman authority: Bulgaria, Vallachia, Serbia, Moldavia and Bessarabia. Furthermore, he inserted a special line for the border of his state, which he wanted to create, something that recently has been noted. So, he printed undisturbedly and legally his Map, and the other maps, and of course his two books, without any problem while concealing his real purposes, which weren't perceived by the so well organized spy net-work of the austrian police of his period.


His revolutionary plan


Rhigas wasn't a "superficial examiner of the facts", but contrarily he had conceived an exact revolutionary plan for deliverance of the enslaved Greeks and the other Balkan people from the Ottoman authority and tyranny. And that is concluded from the publishing works: Map of Greece, figure of Alexander the Great, Young Anacharsis, New Political Administration, Thourios, and as well from the inquisitive documents referring to his arrest, inquest, imprisonment and death, which came to light after a century or more from his martyrdom by E. Legrand and K.Amantos. Through the study of all these it is ascertained that Rhigas' revolutionary plan was prepared with method, it was realistic, adaptable and with a perspective for what it will be after the prevalence, and that's why his movement is characterized as "revolution", contrary to the attempts up to his epoch against tyranny, which are characterized as "rebellions".

Rhigas' revolutionary plan can generally be distinguished into two parts: in preparing the revolution and its adjustment and practice.

A' . Preparation of the revolution


Rhigas, as a true revolutionist, had as first target to raise the morale of the enslaved and second to create a revolutionary mood and inspiration, which are the appropriate elements in order to get prepared to take the arms for revolution. For the accomplishment of that purpose he made use of two basic elements of communication: image through the printed books and sound through the music of Thourios.

At first, he fought against the superstitions, which contained fatalism and apathy. In 1790 he printed the book "Anthology of Physics" with the purpose, as he noted in his preface, to help the "fallen the Greek Nation", to get "some idea of the incomprehensible physics". Especially, our research has demonstrated that Rhigas studied the French Encyclopedia of Diderot and D' Alamber, which were printed in the second half of 18th century, from which he translated lemmas and so he transferred them to the Greek area by the pages of his book "Anthology of Physics".

It is interesting to emphasize that, even the book with love stories "School of delicate lovers", contains elements which show Rhigas' forerunner knowledge and democratic ideas. He doesn't accept the hereditary titles. He declares that all people are equal and can be distinguished by their knowledge, abilities and laboriousness. Characteristically he declares that "the real nobility is inside a man and not in the vain titles of his forefathers".

Moreover, in " The Olympia of Metastasio", which he published in 1797, mentions that the contests of the Olympic Games of antiquity and notes that during his time many contests were still taking place in Thessaly and all over Greece, by this he wanted to remind the Greeks of their historical continuity. In addition Rhigas finds the opportunity to emphasize the word liberty and giving it a revolutionary meaning by using intense bold printing, independently of the meaning of the word in the French text, and especially puts the word by itself in a particular line, in order to be more effective to the reader. And at the beginning of the book "Shepherd girl of Alps" of Marmontel he writes with the most intense printing the characteristic phrase "holy love of the mother land nestles in the heart and the heart never gets old".


Supervisory material


Rhigas for his revolutionary plan uses a proper supervisory material with the purpose to influence, change the behavior of the enslaved and raise their morale. He gave importance to the strength of image, by which he could pass messages to the enslaved without using many words. On that thought the edition of Alexander the Greats figure is also enlisted and in that edition his bravery is emphasized. Moreover, Rhigas shows the figures Alexander' of the four generals of Alexander, well images of his triumphal entrance into Babylon, the victory at Granikos river, Darios' family knelling and honoring to Alexander. In relation to the edition of Alexander the Greats image, in the documents of Legrand is noted that "Rhigas confesses that for the purpose of his nation's reformation" engraved and printed the image of Alexander the Great with "notes about the actions of this hero, in French and Greek". Besides, Rhigas had announced to his comrade Dr. Demetrios Nikolidis the revolutionary intention "which he had while publishing his maps, the translation of the fourth part of Anacharsis and the figures of Alexander the Great".

It is indicated that in the epoch, 1797, Napoleon Bonaparte was glorified as liberator of people and his armies were close to Greece, at Ionian islands, and many praised hymns for him. Though many praised Napoleon, Rhigas, as one can see in his works, does not, nor does he even write a verse. On the contrary, in that epoch he prints the figures of Alexander the Great in order to distribute them to the enslaved, giving them in this manner an exact model. Nevertheless, this action of Rhigas shows even more the extent of his studies and how he had been taught by the events of history.

Also, with the edition of forth volume of the book Young Anacharsis, using a lot of footnotes and notes, he shows the ancient glory and legacy. He speaks against the German catholic philosopher, Cornelis de Pauw, regarding his unrecorded ideas in history, which a few years earlier had been published, saying that the Greeks of Rhigas' epoch weren't descendants of ancient Greeks. In this manner he tries to connect ancient Greeks to the contemporaneous Hellenismh, emphasizing its maintenance to the present.

Apart of his other works He tries again with his Map, , to encourage the enslaved emphasizing the important historical persons (people) of Antiquity, who he inserts alphabetically, beginning especially from Admetos of Ferron, his birth place, of Velestino. He writes the names of the emperors of the geographical area of Balkan, of Konstantinople. He spreads on his Map coins of ancient towns, indicating so indirectly of the ancient towns' magnificence, economical and political power. But also with the edition of the "New Political Administration", of Revolutionary Proclamation, Human Rights, Constitution, he encourages the morale of the enslaved, who are contained in the Balkan area, by declaring equality in front of law, respect of language and religion faith to all people.






However, with his Thourios Rhigas Velestinlis is proved as unrivailed in his revolution's preparation. He succeeds in inspiring the enslaved by creating a revolutionary spiritual mood, in order to decide to take the arms for rebellion. The word "thourios" means rapid, polemic and rage, which Rhigas borrowed from the ancient writers, because it wasn't in use in his epoch, and so it is inserted after that into the Neohellenic vocabulary, and especially it is made synonym with revolution. Thourios is written in simple words, in order to be comprehensible to people and it didn't need footnotes nor interpretations, as other important poetic productions of pro-revolutionary epoch. With characteristic images he recites in a tragic tone the condition of slavery and urged the enslaved to the great struggle of war. Especially, Rhigas combined the revolutionary triumphal hymn, Thurios, with dance. Song and dance together in order to urge people to revolution. Nevertheless, Rhigas himself at meetings of the Greeks in houses of Wienn sang with his flute and danced around the table, as characteristically the inquisitive documents report. Thurios was circulated mainly in written form, as only few printed copies were not confiscated by the Austrian police. However, Thourios's spreading and circulating consists perhaps in the history of people a unique phenomenon. Since then characteristic are the cases, which have been recorded in bibliography, regarding the change of the spiritual mood of the enslaved for war after the hearing of Thourios, as for example is the case, which Foriel mentions and also the case of Anthimos Gazis' soldiers during the operation against the Turks of Velestion, the birth place of Rhigas.

Rhigas is distinguished through his work as a man of efficacy. Concretely, in order Thurios to be easily learned and to be spread quickly, Rhigas didn't write the notes of music. He notes only that it would be in the melody of a very well known song and which is song widely during his epoch, "A great command", which is mentioned in the achievement of Lampros Katsonis (1752-1804), whose combats had revived the hopes of the Greeks for the much desired liberty. Thourios has been found in a recent research, in five traditional musical variations, which shows that it was extensively spread to different places and adjusted each time on the musical peculiarity of every place.

Moreover, Rhigas was very methodical in the preparation of his revolution. He tries to unify all the enslaved people, who were under the Ottoman tyranny, in his revolution's struggle. His believe was that power was in unification. That is why he addresses an invitation to all the people of the Balkan area and exclaims:

"Bulgarians, Albanians, Armenians and Greeks,

blacks and whites all with the same fling,

for freedom the sword let's all gird,

and everyone should hear that brave we will be",

(Thourios, verses 45-48).


He also emphasizes the cooperation and solidarity of people, who are in slavery, to face the difficulties and not to be in indifferent to the problems of any other member. Each one is a part of the state. Especially, Rhigas as "whole" considers all the people, who are in the Balkan area, which he describes on his Maps, and they must cooperate for the good of all. Characteristically he emphasizes in article 34 of the Human Rights, that "nobody should show indifference when another country is at war as he rests in his country. But I am at war when a country suffers, as I am a part of the whole". And so Rhigas gives examples of the importance of his proposal in order for it to be conceivable by the enslaved and through this manner it can be seen as to how methodical he was in the planning of his revolutionary work. Specifically, he writes: "the Bulgarian must help when the Greek suffers. As should the Greek. And both for the Albanian and the Vlach".

Also, He utilized in his revolutionary work the psychological factor so as to succeed in his purposes. He had to prove as a fable, the diffuse conviction that the Ottoman troops were unbeatable, and therefore he uses the specific example of "Girziarlidis", who had revolted in the area of Thrace. That's why in his Thourios says that Sultan as strong as the enslaved think:

Never consider that he is strong

He palpitates and trembles as a hare

Three hundreds Girzianlides made him see

That he cannot defeat them with cannons,

(Thourios verse 111-114).


Rhigas wasn't against the Eastern Orthodox Church and notables


In relation to the expressed opinion of Phillimon that Rhigas' revolutionary plan from the beginning was to be condemned to failure, due to the fact that Rhigas was against the Orthodox Church and the notables, we notice the following: through our research into Rhigas' texts and interrogative documents we weren't able to find any such evidence where Rhigas expresses negative thoughts against the priests or Church, but on the contrary to that it was ascertained that he was a faithful man. Moreover, as it was said previously, he followed a unifying tactic for the revolution. He wanted all the powers of the people to cooperate for the pursued target, revolution and liberty. The most probable reason is that such an impression might have been formed, due to the fact that the ideas against the priests, which are expessed by Anonymos the Greek in his book Greek Perfecture, and which was dedicated to Rhigas, those believes were attributed as if they were his.

In relation now to the opinion that Rhigas was against the notables and so his revolutionary plan would be condemned in failure as he wouldn't have their support, just as it is ascertained from his work, Rhigas would surely have taken into consideration the importance of the notables' participation. He especially emphasizes in his Revolutionary Proclamation with a significance meaning, that every one must be assured of his property and his integrity. Characteristically he notes that "nobody, whatever class or religion, can be sure for his life, his honour and property. Even the quietest, most innocent and the most honest citizen is in danger every time to be a pitiful offering to the tyrannical fancy, or to the wild vicars and unworthy magnates of the Tyrant". Also in his Thourios (verse 17-20) he recites in a tragic tone the condition of uncertainty for life and property of Christians and Muslims:

"Gallant commanders, popular parsons,

And masters all they died by an unjust sword ;

And countless so many, and Turks and Greeks,

They lost their life and treasures without any cause".


And it was that safety and confidence that Rhigas emphasized was to be assured only by the democratic state which would result after his revolution.


How Austrians saw Rhigas' revolutionary plan


It is interesting to examine how the Austrians saw Rhigas' revolutionary plan after the capture, which they achieved after α treachery by a Greek crafty merchant. Revealing are all that the minister of Police writes to his emperor Fragisko (27 April 1798): «as a preparatory way and for that purpose (the revolution) he wrote and edited an extremely revolutionary song, Thourios Hymn, prepared maps of Greece and neighbor countries, one of them being composed of twelve parts, printed a large number of copies, translated into Greek the fourth part of the book Anacharsis with political notes and the book "Morale Tripus". He printed images of Alexander the Great with notes about his bravery. He sold a part of all these to many Greeks who live here, but most of the copies were sent to Moldavia, Vlachia and Greece with the intention of contrasting between the past and todays condition».


B'. The plan for the application and prevalence of the revolution


The second part of Rhigas' revolutionary plan contained the practical aspect of his revolution with the purpose being that, after its prevalence, the liberation of the enslaved from tyranny and the creation of a new political situation, the New Political Administration, where liberty would prevail, equality of rights, democracy, liberty of religion and respect of human rights.

For the practice of his revolutionary plan, Rhigas thought that an essential element for its success would be the military training of the enslaved, which should be according to prevailed modern ideas of military art. Rhigas knew quite well that the revolutionary people wouldn't be able to oppose to the Sultans' army, if they weren't trained in modern polemic art. So during that important year, 1797, Rhigas translated a manual of polemic art of the Austrian general von Khevenhuller (1683-1744) and he printed it with the title Military Manual with the purpose to be used for the military training of the Greeks, who in their greater number were inexperienced with war. Unfortunately, until now no copy of that translation and edition has been found, because they were seized by the Austrian Police. And whatever we know about the Military Manual, we know it from the interrogative documents of Legrand and Amantou.

How important this action of Rhigas was, that is to say, to translate and print the book of modern military art, was pointed out by what Anonymos the Greek expresses in Hellenic Perfecture 1806, only eight years after Rhigas' martyrdom. Characteristically he writes that «The science of arms is more extensive and it needs a book with extensive content about it, for which the present Greeks have a great need and if at sometime someone succeeds to translate it, all the enslaved will learn of how great the art of war is.». And Rhigas had the foresight to print it in 1797, because as a real revolutionist and leader knew very well its necessity. That's why in special characteristics of Rhigas' personality it is noted that he was also a military mind.

In accordance with the military part of his revolutionary plan, it is ascertained by the inquisitive documents of Legrand and Amantou that Rhigas planed the starting of his revolution from the areas of Manis, where there were the experienced in war Maniates. After that he would march forward to deliberate the rest of Peloponnesos and with parallel military training of the enslaved would march to Hepiros, where the other part of the experienced Greek people, the Souliotes were. From there he would march forward, as a bow, to revolt and liberate the rest of Greece and the other Balkan areas of Albania, Serbia, Bulgaria and Vlachia.


Rhigas supported his revolution on the native powers of the enslaved and

not on the help of the great powers of his epoch, as pointed out by professor Nikolaos Pantazopoulos and perfectly confirmed by his studies. Rhigas knew that the foreigner powers were interested in their profits and not the enlsaveds' profits. Fresh in mind would be him the experiences from the Orlofica and even more the treaties of Sistov, 1791, between Sultan and Austria, and of Iasio 1792 between Sultan and Russia.

Wether Rhigas' revolutionary plan was to be adaptable at the beginning of his revolution, we can maintain that it would have succeed, as we are ascertained that the rebellion after a few years,( 1821), started from Peloponnesos, Sterea Hellada and little by little was extended further north and finally prevailed, as Rhigas wanted his plan to adapt. On the contrary, as we know, in Paradunavies areas where Rhigas lived and knew wel, the revolution failed. But as a military mind he knew very well that the starting of his revolution wouldn't have had any success from these places and that's why he headed to Poloponnesos.


The Revolutionary Proclamation


Being informed of diplomacy and of the importance of the psychological factor particularly in the outcome of revolutionary movements, Rhigas had foreseen at the beginning of his revolution the importance of having ready the Revolutionary Proclamation, in which he expresses the right of armed arousing against the tyrannical authority of Sultan. Therefore he would be able to created the right for the legality of his revolutionary movement, in order to be in a position to ask for its political recognition from the other nations. This action of Rhigas to have the Revolutionary Proclamation prepared shows his forethought, his seriousness of his revolution's preparation as well that he had prepared the legal and political cover of his movement.


Rhigas' revolution perspective


However, Rhigas' revolutionary plan wasn't only restricted to the outbreak of the revolution, as usually happens in revolts. He progressed to consolidate it in the areas which would be deliberated from the Ottoman tyranny, creating a new political regime, the New Political Administration. Rhigas placed great importance to what would happen after a military victory. He believed that anarchy is a form of tyranny, as he emphasizes it in his Thurios. That's why he prepared his constitution, so as his state to be ready after the military victory and to govern with an specific democratic constitution.

From French Rhigas translated the New Political Administration, which contains the Revolutionary Proclamation, the Hunan Rights and the Constitution, in which he also added a lot of his own texts to the original, which shows his pioneering political thought in the establishing and organizing of his state.

Rhigas supported the new political condition on democracy and not on hereditary authority. pecially, he inserts provisions for democracy's protection from its enemies, who would try to overthrow it. He wanted to create a new status quo in the Balkan area putting into practice the democratic constitution and Human Rights. For his state he also printed a Map. He wanted to have a map of the area, which he would liberate ready and would create his democracy with its prefectures and toparxies. His Map would be a helpful instrument of his New Political Administration, his Constitution, as it is expressed in the results of our recent research, after our reprinting of the Map and the composition of the index its names.


Illegal printing of his revolution works


Moreover and the most important is that, Rhigas, locked in for two days and nights in Poulios' brothers Siatista printing-house, printed illegally the Revolutionary Proclamation, The Human Rights, the Constitution and Thurios, as well as the book «Military Manual». In the inquisitive documents it is written that «Huggele confessed that in his bosses' printing-house, Poulios, was printed, a proclamation in shape of a leaf with a wood-engraving of a club at its beginning, and for this work two nights were needed and under extreme pressure and almost at all times Rhigas being present and 3000 ready printed copies were sent to Rhigas house». Moreover Rhigas knew that it wouldn't be possible in any manner to mislead the censureship and the Police. Now his revolutionary copy had in it the Revolutionary Proclamation clearly written and therefore began the armed fight against the Ottoman tyranny. That's why he printed them illegally.


Assuring passport from Austrian Authorities


Rhigas having printed his revolutionary works and having prepared without giving any reason for suspicion to the Austrian Police, even when he was under surveillance, achieved to obtain a passport, to load his things and to start on his great purpose, his revolution. Characteristic are what the Austrian Governor of Triest reports to the Wienn's minister of Police: «I have been secretly informed that someone called Rhigas Velestinlis, who yesterday arrived with a passport of the competent imperial authority carries with him suspicious books with the aimed for the preparation of a revolution in the East».

Rhigas left from Wien, passed through Austria and directed to its borders, without until that time the Austrian Police something to had suspected about his activity. That's a point which shows his great revolutionary conspiring ability.




Demetrios Oeconomou, the chicken-hearted merchant without patriotic consciousness, opened the letter, which was addressed not to him, but to his partner, betrayed to the Austrian Police Rhigas' letter and the boxes with his revolutionary copies. As soon as he arrives at the hotel to stay is arrested, is examined and is uncovered his revolutionary movement. Therefore, the well organized Austrian Police at that time knew Rhigas' revolutionary movement and more terrified because hadn't suspected the conspiracy, which was plotted inside its state, giving an impress that its effective machination of service had been annihilated. Especially, the same emperor, Frangiskos, then followed it close after the course of examinations. Rhigas successed in so many months to mislead the Police showing and at that point his talent and revolutionary ability.




Rhigas' all actions show his great precaution, how realistic and real examiner of the things was, with ability to cover, as real revolutionist, his revolutionary purposes, that during preparation of his revolutionary plan was sufficiently "thoughtful and dissimulative", as well as careful and prudent "examiner of the things" and not "superficial" but sensible, methodical, systematic, who worked with carefulness during the time of his revolution's preparation, which however stopped by treachery of a Greek merchant.

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